Ketorolac has a pronounced analgesic effect, also has anti-inflammatory and moderate antipyretic effects.
The mechanism of action is associated with non-selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 enzyme activity, mainly in peripheral tissues, the consequence of which is inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis – modulators of pain sensitivity, thermoregulation and inflammation. Ketorolac is a racemic mixture of [-]S and [+]R enantiomers, and the analgesic effect is due to the [-]S form.
It is comparable to morphine in its analgesic effect and is considerably superior to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
The drug does not affect opioid receptors, does not depress respiration, does not cause drug dependence, does not have sedative and anxiolytic effects. After intramuscular administration the onset of analgesic effect is observed after 0.5 hours, the maximum effect is reached after 1-2 hours.
. When administered orally, Ketorolac is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract – the maximum concentration (Cmax) in blood plasma (0.7-1.1 mcg/ml) is reached 40 min after an empty stomach dose of 10 mg. Fat-rich food decreases the maximum blood concentration of the drug and delays its achievement by 1 hour. 99% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins and in case of hypoalbuminemia the amount of free substance in blood increases.
The bioavailability is 80-100%. Time of reaching equilibrium concentration (Ссs) by oral administration – 24 hours when administered 4 times a day (higher than subtherapeutic) and is 0.39-0.79 mcg/ml after 10 mg oral administration. The volume of distribution is 0.15-0.33 l/kg.
In patients with renal insufficiency the distribution volume of the drug may increase 2-fold, and the distribution volume of its R-enantiomer – by 20%.
Transfers to breast milk: when the mother takes 10 mg of ketorolac, Cmax in milk is reached 2 hours after the first dose and is 7.3 ng/ml; 2 hours after the second dose of ketorolac (when using the drug 4 times a day) it is 7.9 ng/ml. More than 50% of the administered dose is metabolized in the liver to form pharmacologically inactive metabolites.
The main metabolites are glucuronides, which are excreted by the kidneys and p-hydroxyketorolac. It is excreted 91% by the kidneys and 6% through the intestine.
The elimination half-life (T1/2) in patients with normal renal function is on average 5.3 h. T1/2 is longer in elderly patients and shorter in younger patients. Liver function has no effect on T1/2.
In patients with impaired renal function at a plasma creatinine concentration of 19-50 mg/l (168-442 μmol/l). T1/2 is 10.3-10.8 h, in more severe renal insufficiency – more than 13.6 h. It is not excreted by hemodialysis.
Pain syndrome of severe to moderate severity:
- dental pain,
- pain in the postoperative period,
- rheumatic diseases.
It is intended for symptomatic therapy, reducing pain and inflammation at the time of use, does not affect the progression of the disease.
1 tablet contains:
the active ingredient:
ketorolaca tromethamine – 10 mg,
Milk sugar (lactose),
polyvinylpyrrolidone low molecular weight (povidone),
collidone CL M;
oxypropyl methylcellulose or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (hypromellose), talc, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol 4000, propylene glycol.
How to take, the dosage
Ketorolac is taken orally, once or repeatedly depending on the severity of the pain syndrome.
The single dose is 10 mg; if repeatedly taken, 10 mg up to 4 times a day is recommended, depending on the severity of the pain; the maximum daily dose should not exceed 40 mg.
When taken orally, the duration of the course should not exceed 5 days.
Concomitant use of ketorolac with acetylsalicylic acid or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium preparations, glucocorticosteroids, ethanol, corticotropin may lead to gastrointestinal ulcers and development of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Co-administration with paracetamol increases nephrotoxicity, with methotrexate – hepato- and nephrotoxicity. Co-administration of ketorolac and methotrexate is possible only with the use of low doses of the latter (monitor the plasma concentration of methotrexate).
The use of ketorolac may decrease clearance of methotrexate and lithium and increase toxicity of these substances. Concomitant administration with indirect anticoagulants, heparin, thrombolytics, antiaggregants, cefoperazone, cefotetan and pentoxifylline increases the risk of bleeding.
Limits the effect of hypotensive and diuretic drugs (reduces the synthesis of prostaglandins in the kidneys). When combining with opioid analgesics, the doses of the latter may be significantly reduced, since their effects are enhanced. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents increases (recalculation of the dose is necessary).
The co-administration with valproic acid causes impairment of platelet aggregation. Increases plasma concentrations of verapamil and nifedipine.
When prescribed with other nephrotoxic drugs (including gold drugs) the risk of nephrotoxicity increases. Probenecid and drugs that block tubular secretion decrease clearance of ketorolac and increase its concentration in blood plasma.
The solution for injection should not be mixed in the same syringe with morphine sulfate, promethazine and hydroxyzine due to precipitation.
Pharmaceutically incompatible with tramadol solution, lithium preparations. Solution for injection is compatible with 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% dextrose solution, Ringer and Ringer-lactate solutions, “Plasmalite” solution, as well as with infusion solutions containing aminophylline, lidocaine hydrochloride, dopamine hydrochloride, human insulin of short action and heparin sodium salt.
When combined with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid retention, decompensation of cardiac activity, arterial hypertension may be observed. The effect on platelet aggregation stops after 24-48 hours.
Hypovolemia increases the risk of adverse reactions from the kidneys. If necessary, can be administered in combination with narcotic analgesics.
Ketorolac is not recommended for premedication, maintenance anesthesia and analgesia in obstetric practice.
Do not use simultaneously with paracetamol for more than 5 days. Patients with blood clotting disorders are prescribed the drug only with continuous monitoring of platelet count, especially in the postoperative period, which requires close monitoring of hemostasis.
It is recommended to avoid performing work requiring increased attention and quick reactions (driving, working with machinery, etc.).
- gastrointestinal ulcers,
- past gastrointestinal bleeding,
- high sensitivity to nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs,
- haemorrhagic stroke (confirmed or suspected), haemorrhagic diathesis, bleeding disorders.
The drug is not used for pain relief before and during surgery because of the high risk of bleeding, and for treatment of chronic pain.
Frequently – more than 3%, less frequently – 1-3%, rarely – less than 1%.
The digestive system: often (especially in elderly patients over 65 years of age with a history of gastrointestinal erosive ulcers) – gastralgia, diarrhea; less frequently – stomatitis, flatulence, constipation, vomiting, feeling of stomach fullness; rarely – nausea, erosive ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract (including perforation and/or bleeding – abdominal pain, spasm or burning of the epigastric region.with perforation and/or bleeding – abdominal pain, spasm or burning in epigastric region, blood in stool or melena, vomiting with blood or “coffee grounds” type, nausea, heartburn, etc.), cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, acute pancreatitis.
Urinary system disorders: rare – acute renal failure, lumbar pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (hemolytic anemia, renal failure, thrombocytopenia, purpura), frequent urination, increased or decreased volume of urine, nephritis, edema of renal genesis.
Sense organs: rarely – hearing loss, tinnitus, visual impairment (including blurred vision).
Respiratory system disorders: rarely – bronchospasm or dyspnea, rhinitis, pulmonary edema, laryngeal edema (shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing).
CNS disorders: often – headache, dizziness, somnolence, rarely – aseptic meningitis (fever, severe headache, cramps, neck and/or back stiffness), hyperactivity (mood changes, anxiety), hallucinations, depression, psychosis.
Cardiovascular system: less frequently – increase in blood pressure, rarely – fainting.
Hematopoietic system: rarely – anemia, eosinophilia, leukopenia.
Hemostatic system disorders: rare – bleeding from the postoperative wound, nasal bleeding, rectal bleeding.
Skin disorders: less frequently – skin rash (including maculopapular rash), purpura, rarely – exfoliative dermatitis (fever with or without chills, redness, thickening or peeling of the skin, swelling and/or pain of the palatine tonsils), urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell syndrome.
Local reactions: less frequent – burning or pain at the injection site.
Allergic reactions: rarely – anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions (changes in complexion, skin itching, tachypnea or dyspnea, eyelid edema, periorbital edema, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, heaviness in the chest, wheezing).
Others: often – edema (face, shins, ankles, fingers, feet, weight gain); less often – increased sweating, rarely – tongue swelling, fever.
Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, occurrence of peptic ulcers of the stomach or erosive gastritis, impaired renal function, metabolic acidosis.
Treatment: gastric lavage, administration of adsorbents (activated charcoal) and symptomatic therapy (maintenance of vital functions in the body). Not excreted sufficiently by dialysis.
Ketorolac is contraindicated in pregnancy, lactation and children under 16 years of age.
Dolac, Ketorol, Ketonov, Ketorolac, Ketorolac Rompharm
|Conditions of storage|
In a dry, light-protected place at a temperature not exceeding 25 °C
Sintez OAO, Russia
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